IB Topic 4. Western and Northern Europe 1848‑1914
This section covers British history from 1867 to 1914 and France during the Second Empire and Third French Republic. This was a period of change and modernization, as well as war, political turmoil and social upheavals.
France: 1848 Revolution, Empire and Republic
(Book Section 58, )
III: domestic and foreign policies• Collapse of
Empire; Paris Commune
(Book Section 62)
- Third French Republic 1875‑1914: crises and policies; Boulanger; financial problems; Dreyfus; left‑wing movements; establishment of a secular state (Book Section 74)
- Britain 1867‑1914: extension of the franchise; social reforms; development of political parties (Book Section 74)
- Disraeli and Gladstone: domestic, including Irish, policies; foreign and imperial policies (Book Section 74)
- Case study of political developments in one Western or Northern European state (suitable examples could be Spain, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland but all relevant states are valid)
Third Republic Reading Assignment
Evaluate the following statement: “La Gloire created and sustained Napoleon III. Loss of it caused his downfall.
For what reasons did Napoleon III view himself as a good socialist?
How did France make a near-ally out of Britain by 1907?
Why did the Third Republic have such problems with legitimacy?
Why did the liberal Republicans destroy the Paris Commune so thoroughly and with such ferocity?
How did the aftermath of the French Commune create a sense of stability?
What were the major crises for the Third Republic from 1871 to 1914?
Why did France have so much strife over Church-State issues from 1871 to 1914?
Why did France seek a new empire in the 1880s?
How did the two Moroccan crises (1905 and 1911) make France more secure?