Annotated Timeline: Italy 1919-1939

Paris Peace Conference 1919: The conference held after WW1 regarding setting the peace terms for Germany and other nations. The “Big Four”, or President Woodrow Wilson of the USA, Prime Ministers David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy were at the center of the conference. Several treaties were agreed upon, including the Treaty of Versailles. Through the agreements and treaties, Italy was given Trentino, Trieste, Tyrol and Istria.

Elections of 1919: Socialist Party won 1/3 of all the votes, and the Catholic Popular Party won 1/5 of all the votes. The results of the election led to encouraging more socialist strikes, some of which were started by the General Federation of Labor.

Blackshirts (Squadristi) 1919: Group of Fascist paramilitary that were also known as the National Security Volunteer Militia. Mussolini used them as his military tool for political movements, such as the March on Rome.

General Strike of 1920: Over 600,000 workers took over factories and gained control of towns in northern Italy. The General federation of Labor called for this strike in which, over 600,000 workers took over factories and gained control of towns in northern Italy.

Treaty of Rapallo 1920: Treaty between Italy and Yugoslavia, in which the city of Fiume became a free city under the League of Nations, and Italy gained some land and spheres of influence in Dalmatia.

Second General Strike of 1922: Communists and Socialists declared an ill-prepared general strike, of which was stopped easily by fascists and government troops.

March on Rome 1922: Bennito Mussolini’s National Fascist Party marched to Rome at the hopes of ruling Italy, and King Victor Emmanuel III gave the kingdom to Mussolini when he arrived.

Grand Council of Fascism 1923: Established as the party body for fascists, and later became the state body of fascists.

Corfu Incident 1923: Enrico Tellini, the chairman of the commission that was watching the boundaries between Greece and Albania was murdered along with a few of his assistants on Greek land. Italy sent an ultimatum demanding 50 million lire in reparations, and the execution of the assailants. Greece failed to locate the assassins and so Italy invaded Corfu searching for them, but failed and killed 15 civillians.

The Aventine Secession 1924: When the Italian Socialist Party left the Chamber of Deputies after the murder of Giacomo Matteotti, who spoke out against the use of force by Mussolini’s fascists during the first meeting of the new Parliament. 

Law on Association 1926: Outlawed all political opposition, and created a secret police force to arrest political opponents.

1927 Labor Charter: A charter that expressed the ideas of the Fascist Corporate State. They claimed to bring in both employees and employers into one confederation. Employees were not allowed to go on strike and employers couldn’t lockout the workers.

Abolition of Universal Suffrage 1928: Universal suffrage was abolished and political elections were restricted to candidates officially elected by the Fascist Grand Council.

The Lateran Treaty of 1929: Treaty between Italy and the Holy See in which three agreements were made. First, full sovereignty of the Holy See in the Vatican City was established. Second, a concordat was created to regulate the Catholic Church and religion in Italy. Third, a financial convention agreed on as a definitive settlement of the claims of the Holy See following the losses of its territories and property.

Mussolini 1929: Mussolini obtains all legislative power and acquires the position of Prime Minister permanently.

The Walwal Incident 1934: A garrison of Somalis under Italian control got into a skirmish with Ethiopian armed forces at Walwal. The reasons for the start of the skirmish are sketchy, but nevertheless the incident had occurred.

Battle of Wheat 1925-35: Mussolini decided that Italy needed to become self-sufficient and that a higher production of wheat would achieve that goal. By 1935, they had achieved a reduction of imports by 75 percent, so close to self sufficiency, which was the farmer’s motivation in this battle.

Rome-Berlin Axis 1936: A Coalition formed between Italy and Germany by Italy’s foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano. Later became the Axis powers when Japan joined the coalition.

Assembly of Corporations 1939: The Grand Council of Fascism abolished the Parliament and then replaced it with the Assembly of Corporations, which consisted of 22 representatives of industrial and private corporations.