People of Mussolini's Italy
Benito Mussolini: Mussolini was a Nationalistic left-wing socialist and wanted to take Austrian lands he deemed belonging to Italy during the Great War. He sought help from the Allies, but Britain and France were not eager to assist Mussolini. Mussolini’s fascist movement gained 35 of the 500 parliamentary seats in the 1921 election. In 1922, Mussolini executed the March on Rome, gaining power through this coup d’etat. Mussolini proceeded to take over many aspects of government and remove any constitutional restraints placed on him as leader. In 1928, he abolished all other political parties and parliamentary election.
Grand Council of Fascism: The Grand Council of Fascism was created by Mussolini in 1923 to hold great power over the government. It was headed by Prime Minister Mussolini who also elected the members of the council. All laws had to be approved by the Prime Minister before being implemented. There remained very little checks on Mussolini’s power as Prime Minister.
Victor Emmanuel III: King of Italy from 1900 until 1946. In 1922, during Fascist uprising and
Mussolini’s March on Rome, Emmanuel refused to sign a decree for Martial Law. Emmanuel eventually appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister, although Mussolini’s troops posed little threat to the monarch. Emmanuel slowly lost power and strength to Mussolini, and eventually lost popular support.
Pareto: Economist and Philosopher born in 1948. His ideas influences the Fascists, such as Mussolini, and gave rise to the idea that democracies cannot exist. His views on power laws and their application to income influenced the fascists greatly. He welcomed a smaller government and wanted Mussolini to become the new leader.
Squadristi: Also known as the “Blackshirts”, was a fascist group in Italy after WWI. They were headed by Mussolini as a military force and harsh against labor unions. They were sent to help participate in the Spanish Civil War.