Revolutions of 1848-- Personalities
Giusseppe Mazzini: A huge figure in Italian unification, Mazzini is one of the founders of modern Italy. In the 1848 Revolution, Mazzini was a leader of the Roman Republic which drove the Pope from Rome. However, he himself was driven from Rome a year later when forces loyal to the Papacy returned.
Frederick William IV, King of Prussia: The King of Prussia during the revolution of 1848, he initially went along with liberal demands for constitutional reform. However, as the revolutionaries lost steam, he later reneged on many of the reforms. He had one opportunity to benefit from the revolution when the Frankfurt Assembly offered him the crown of a United Germany. He rejected the offer with the derisive, "I will not accept a crown from the gutter."
Giusseppe Garibaldi: During the Revolution of 1848, Garibaldi became well-known for his attempts at unification by opposing the Pope's control of the Papal States, and by fighting against Austrian counter-revolutionaries. After the collapse of the Revolution he took refuge in America and later returned to help finally unify Italy.
Louis Philippe, King of France: The unfortunate King who was at the epicenter of the Revolutions of 1848. It was his order to ban banquets in Parish celebrating republican George Washington's birthday that launched the year of revolutions. Though he had liberalized France during his past 18 years as monarch and was known as the "liberal Monarch," it counted for little in February 1848. The republican LaMartine said it best when he stated just before the Revolution, "France is bored!"