Czar Nicholas II

Nicholas II, son of Czar Alexander III, was born in the year of 1868. As a child he was educated by Pobyedonostev, the lay head of the Russian Orthodox Church. In 1894, he took on the role of czar after his father’s death. Nicholas II wanted to keep the same autocratic rule that his father had, and that was the basis of his reign as czar. During his rule, the country of Russia experienced a period of great industrialization and land reform.

In 1905, Russia went to war with Japan over Manchuria. During the Russo-Japanese War, as it came to be called, the Russians experienced a period of revolution in what would be known as the Revolution of 1905 which was sparked by Bloody Sunday. As the revolution progressed in the West, soldiers deserted the army in the East. The deserters were known as the Black Hundreds. The revolt of both peasants and soldiers brought about drastic changes in the Russian government. Nicholas II decided to create a Duma to soothe his discontented subjects.

The first signs of the major war that loomed in Russia’s future appeared in 1908 as the Bosnia Crisis began to develop. After this event, Russia attempted to further develop its international relations. The Triple Entente, a loose alliance with Britain and France, was the fruit of their efforts. Not long after the formulation of this “understanding,” Russia found itself in the throws of war. World War I began in 1914, and, though to the east of the center of the conflict, it found itself involved in this epic conflict. Nicholas II went to the front with his troops leaving his wife, Czarina Alexandra, in charge of the country. The Czarina relied on the self-proclaimed monk of Siberia, Grigory Rasputin, for advice and guidance during this period.

In February of 1917, domestic social unrest spontaneously erupted in to the February Revolution. Nicholas II was forced to abdicate that year, and he and his family moved away to avoid the angry revolutionaries. The revolution didn’t last long, but set the course for what came next. The PRG was then enacted. The first president was Prince Lvov in 1907 after February, and in June, Kerensky took over. 

In what came to be known as Red October, the Bolsheviks, a radical socialist party, unleashed a revolt upon the Russian government and succeeded in taking over the government. In 1918, Nicholas II and his family were shot, burned and buried at their home in Yekaterinburg in the Ural Mountains.

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Works Cited

    "Nicholas II" Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia  1993-1997: 2.  Microsoft Corporation.  CD-ROM.  Microsoft Corporation. 1997

    "Nicholas II" Copyright © 2001 Infonautics Corporation

    "Nicholas II" Britannica Junior Encyclopedia 1976  by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Written by: Gordon Lathrop

Edited by: Paige Greco

Graphic by: Paige Greco

Web Editor: Gordon Lathrop


Life: 1868 - 1918                                             Reign: 1894 – 1917